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Posts Tagged ‘Trac’

Virtual Hosting Using apache2

October 23, 2009 2 comments

What is Virtual Hosting and where and why it is used?

Vitual Hosting is a method that servers such as web servers use to host more than one domain

name on the same computer.

Virtual hosting allows a website owner to have a site hosted on a web server that is shared with

other websites. In other words, virtual hosting services and bandwidht to more than one website.

Virtual web hosting is one of the most popular hosting options available at the moment –

probably because of cost effective because you won’t have to pay for a dedicated server to host just

your website.

Virtual web hosting is good solution for SME’s even for MNC’s also websites that aren’t constantly being visited

There are two basic methods of accomplishing virtual hosting: name-based, and IP address or ip-based.

Lets move to the Practical Session

Check are you have Apache2, mysql5, php5 in your PC or Laptop or NoteBook what ever you calls otherwise follow below steps

1. Install LAMP

2. Control Apache2

3. Control MySql

4. Virtual Hosting

5. Virtual Hosting with multiple names

1. Install LAMP – Linux Apache2 Mysql Php

I preasume you have Ubuntu Linux installed. Let’s install everything else (Apache 2, PHP5 and MySQL 5)

sudo aptitude install apache2 mysql-server php5 php5-mysql libapache2-mod-php5

Open your favourite web browser and enter http://localhost (or http://127.0.0.1)

Check if Apache 2 and PHP 5 work fine

Create a file called test.php and enter this text in it

<?php phpinfo(); ?>

Save the file and copy it to your web site folder, e.g. /var/www

Open your web browser and run

http://localhost/test.php

2. Control Apache2

To start Apache2

sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 start

To stop Apache2

sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 stop

To restart Apache2

sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

After first install I always get this error:

apache2: Could not determine the server’s domain name, using 127.0.0.1 for ServerName

It is easily fixed – add ServerName localhost into apache2.conf

gksudo gedit /etc/apache2/apache2.conf

3. Control MySQL

To start MySQL

sudo /etc/init.d/mysql start

To restart MySQL

sudo /etc/init.d/mysql restart

To stop MySQL

sudo /etc/init.d/mysql stop

Creating Database using MySql

First Login into MySql Using Following Command here it will ask password then enter the root password of My Sql. MySql Password has given when it was Installing

mysql -u root -p

Create Database

Create Database virtual;

Use Database

Use virtual;

4. Virtual Hosting


(a) Allow user to web directory

(b) Create Folder and link to web directory

(c) Using Virtual Hosts

(d) Adding Virtual Hosts

(e) Apache Configuaration


localhost is the default host, but if you add virtal hosts, you may want to change it to, say, somechow

However, the address http://localhost/ by default points to /var/www. That folder is basically empty that is why you do not see much in your web browser.

To show proper web site, you need to put some web pages in that folder.

(a) allow yourselft to have access to the folder /var/www

sudo chown -R USERNAME /var/www

Now, you can copy your great web site to the folder /var/www.

Start Firefox again and type http://localhost/. Do you see you web site?

If you hate to always navigate to /var/www, you can press Control-D in Nautilus to add a new bookmark in Places menu. You can create a link to it in your home folder for easy access, alternatively.

(b) Create a folder in your desired location and link to the web direcotry

ln -s /var/www ~/WebSite

Now you can place all your web content inside the folder WebSite in your home folder and you will see your web site by going to

http://localhost/

(c) Using virtual hosts

If I put a folder called somechow inside /var/www, I can run my local web site by entering http://localhost/somechow.

However, I prefer more human-readable web addresses. For example, when I enter http://somechow, my local WordPress copy of somechow.Ws (located in /home/some/WebSites/somechow) runs in Firefox.

To use virtual hosts, you need to change hosts file and add some information for Apache.

(d) I add my virtual host address to Hosts file

sudo nano /etc/hosts

127.0.0.1 somechow

In above quote instead of 127.0.0.1 I used my desktop IP.

Then I reboot the computer or networking for changes to take effect

sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart

(e) Apache Configuration

Open the window in super user mode  uisng following command prompt

sudo nautilus

I create a copy of file default which is located in /etc/apache2/sites-available and rename it to somechow.

I created a link to this file by right-clicking and selected MakeLink option

I copy this link to /etc/apache2/sites-enabled

I change link file into somechow:

NameVirtualHost * is changed to NameVirtualHost somechow

ServerName@somechow is added under ServerAdmin

DocumentRoot /var/www/ is changed to DocumentRoot /home/some/WebSites/somechow

5. Virtual Hosting with multiple names


(a) Allow user to web directory

(b) Create Folder and link to web directory

(c) Using Virtual Hosts

(d) Adding Virtual Hosts

(e) Apache Configuaration

localhost is the default host, but if you add virtal hosts, you may want to change it to, say, somechow and somedary

However, the address http://localhost/ by default points to /var/www. That folder is basically empty that is why you do not see much in your web browser.

To show proper web site, you need to put some web pages in that folder.

(a) allow yourselft to have access to the folder /var/www

sudo chown -R USERNAME /var/www

Now, you can copy your great web site to the folder /var/www.

Start Firefox again and type http://localhost/. Do you see you web site?

If you hate to always navigate to /var/www, you can press Control-D in Nautilus to add a new bookmark in Places menu. You can create a link to it in your home folder for easy access, alternatively.

(b) Create a folder in your desired location and link to the web direcotry

ln -s /var/www ~/WebSite

Now you can place all your web content inside the folder WebSite in your home folder and you will see your web site by going to

http://localhost/

(c) Using virtual hosts

If I put a folder called somechow and somedary inside /var/www, I can run my local web site by entering http://localhost/somechow or http://localhost/somedary

However, I prefer more human-readable web addresses. For example, when I enter http://somechow and http://somedary , my local WordPress copy of somechow.Ws or somedary.ws(located in /home/some/WebSites/somechow and /home/some/WebSites/somedary ) runs in Firefox.

To use virtual hosts, you need to change hosts file and add some information for Apache.

(d) I add my virtual host address to Hosts file

sudo nano /etc/hosts

127.0.0.1 somechow

127.0.0.1 somedary

In above quote instead of 127.0.0.1 I used my desktop IP.

Then I reboot the computer or networking for changes to take effect

sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart

(e) Apache Configuration

(i) For somechow

Open the window in super user mode  uisng following command prompt

sudo nautilus

I create a copy of file default which is located in /etc/apache2/sites-available and rename it to somechow.

I created a link to this file by right-clicking the somechow and selected MakeLink option

I copy this link to /etc/apache2/sites-enabled

I change link file into somechow:

NameVirtualHost * is changed to NameVirtualHost somechow

ServerName@somechow is added under ServerAdmin

DocumentRoot /var/www/ is changed to DocumentRoot /home/some/WebSites/somechow

(ii) For somedary

Open the window in super user mode  uisng following command prompt

sudo nautilus

I create a copy of file default which is located in /etc/apache2/sites-available and rename it to somedary.

I created a link to this file by right-clicking the somechow and selected MakeLink option

I copy this link to /etc/apache2/sites-enabled

I change link file into somedary:

NameVirtualHost * is changed to NameVirtualHost somedary

ServerName@somedary is added under ServerAdmin

DocumentRoot /var/www/ is changed to DocumentRoot /home/some/WebSites/somedary






Installing SVN and TRAC in Ubuntu 9.04 with Apache2 SSL

September 11, 2009 8 comments

This tutorial will guide you through installation of Apache, HTTPS, Subversion and Trac, in order to have an (almost) complete development environment for your team.

This article is divided in following steps

1. Installing Subversion
2. Installing Apache
3. Configuring Apache with SSL
4. Configuring Subversion with Apache (and SSL)
5. Installing Trac

You may choose for example to see how to install Apache and SSL, or having Apache plus subversion without Trac.
Steps are voluntary isolated, and will require more operations than, for instance, issuing an “apt-get install trac” that will download and install all the packages in one step; but this will hopefully allow the readers to choose picking one section and forget about unneeded components.
I’ll not explain what Subversion is, or what SSL is, etc. Ask google, for this info: I just say that for your software project you may need a server with those tools ready for your team.

Requirements

You need Ubuntu 9.04, in my case I used the “desktop edition” 32bit. But possibly this tutorial should be valid for Debian and previous Ubuntu version; but I have not verified that: if you do, post a comment to report your experience.

Preparation

After installing your server you have to ensure that apt system is up to date with available software on the repositories. Type the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update

upgrading installed packages may be a good idea to do now:

$ sudo apt-get upgrade

Answer Yes if asked to download and install the upgrades.

1. Installing Subversion

From the command line type the command:

$ sudo apt-get install subversion

If everything went fine you should able to verify the Subversion version installed with following command:

$ svn –version

svn, version 1.5.4 (r33841)
compiled Aug  7 2009, 01:44:11

Copyright (C) 2000-2008 CollabNet.
Subversion is open source software, see http://subversion.tigris.org/
This product includes software developed by CollabNet (http://www.Collab.Net/).

The following repository access (RA) modules are available:

* ra_neon : Module for accessing a repository via WebDAV protocol using Neon.
– handles ‘http’ scheme
– handles ‘https’ scheme
* ra_svn : Module for accessing a repository using the svn network protocol.
– with Cyrus SASL authentication
– handles ‘svn’ scheme
* ra_local : Module for accessing a repository on local disk.
– handles ‘file’ scheme

For now, let’s stop here: how to create the Subversion repository, configure the users etc. Will be explained later in conjunction with Apache2 configuration. Maybe I’ll write something on how to deal with svnserve, svnadmin, and user access control, in another article.

Later we will see how to create a repository, configure it with apache and HTTP basic authentication.

2. Installing Apache

To install apache 2 type the command:

$ sudo apt-get install apache

When finished you should be able to connect with the browser at http://localhost and see the message “It works!”. Or you may verify that at the command line installing and using curl:

$ sudo apt-get install curl

$ curl http://localhost
<html><body><h1>It works!</h1></body></html>

3. Configuring Apache with SSL

Now we want to configure apache to run HTTPs.
Following command will enable ssl Apache2 module with a2enmod (cryptic name for “Apache2 enable module”:

$ sudo a2enmod ssl

The previous command will suggest you to restart apache to let it to reload the configuration; ignore that message for now.

We need to enable the HTTPS port (443). Edit /etc/apache2/ports.conf and ensure that port 443 is defined as follows:

$ sudo gedit /etc/apache2/ports.conf

# If you just change the port or add more ports here, you will likely also
# have to change the VirtualHost statement in
# /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default
# This is also true if you have upgraded from before 2.2.9-3 (i.e. from
# Debian etch). See /usr/share/doc/apache2.2-common/NEWS.Debian.gz and
# README.Debian.gz

NameVirtualHost *:80
Listen 80

<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
# SSL name based virtual hosts are not yet supported, therefore no
# NameVirtualHost statement here
NameVirtualHost *:443
Listen 443
</IfModule>

I added the clause NameVirtualHost *:443 in the for SSL; this is not strictly necessary but it will be useful later if you want to have a VirtualHost for trac and other development services.

Now we need to configure the SSL site. Fortunately we have already the configuration file for that, we just need to enable it with a2ensite (cryptic name for “apache2 enable site”)

$ sudo a2ensite default-ssl

Again, the above command will suggest to reload apache configuration to activate the changes. This time the suggestion is almost right. As we made several changes I prefer to restart apache with following command:

sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
* Restarting web server apache2

apache2: Could not reliably determine the server’s fully qualified domain name, using 127.0.1.1 for ServerName
… waiting apache2: Could not reliably determine the server’s fully qualified domain name, using 127.0.1.1 for ServerName

If everything went fine you should see the above warning. You can ignore it, unless you want to configure the ServerName for your server. But this is out of scope, so do a search on Google, or consult an Apache expert.

So, if everything went fine, now we should be able to connect to our server through SSL.
You can use firefox or curl, as before, but this time the URL will be https://localhost

$ curl -k https://localhost
<html><body><h1>It works!</h1></body></html>

the -k option is to ignore certification validation. Also firefox will complain that our certificate is invalid, but you can add it to exceptions and it will nomore bug you with those messages.

If everything went fine, now we should have Apache2, HTTP and HTTPs ready.

4. Configuring Subversion with Apache (and SSL)

First of all, we need to install the Subversion modules for Apache2.

$ sudo apt-get install libapache2-svn

They will be enabled by default. So you don’t need to run a2enmod.

We only need to configure a repository. Let’ say our project is called ‘myproject’.

First of all, let’s decide where our svn repositories will be created. I like /var/local/svn :

$ sudo mkdir /var/local/svn/

Then let’s create the repository using following procedure:

$ sudo mkdir /var/local/svn/myproject
$ sudo chown www-data:www-data /var/local/svn/myproject
$ sudo -u www-data svnadmin create /var/local/svn/myproject

Above commands will ensure that the user www-data (which is the apache user) can fully access the repository for reading and updating it.

We need to configure the repository in Apache. Edit /etc/apache2/mods-available/dav_svn.conf using:

$ sudo gedit /etc/apache2/mods-available/dav_svn.conf

And add a section like the following one:

<Location /svn/myproject>
DAV svn
SVNPath /var/local/svn/myproject
AuthType Basic
AuthName “My Project Subversion Repository”
AuthUserFile /etc/subversion/myproject.passwd
<LimitExcept GET PROPFIND OPTIONS REPORT>
Require valid-user
</LimitExcept>
</Location>

In the above file we indicated that, at the location svn our repository should respond. And for updating the repository we want a valid user. As per above configuration anonymous consultation is allowed; but you can disable it commenting with a leading ‘#’ the lines <LimitExcept … and </LimitExcept> or just removing them as in following example:

<Location /svn/myproject>
DAV svn
SVNPath /var/local/svn/myproject
AuthType Basic
AuthName “My Project Subversion Repository”
AuthUserFile /etc/subversion/myproject.passwd
#<LimitExcept GET PROPFIND OPTIONS REPORT>
Require valid-user
#</LimitExcept>
</Location>

The above configuration indicates to Apache that even for consulting the repository we want a valid user.
But valid users need a password, and in fact we indicated a password file for our repository called /etc/subversion/myproject.passwd. So let’s create a password file with a couple of users:

$ sudo htpasswd -c /etc/subversion/myproject.passwd luigi
$ sudo htpasswd /etc/subversion/myproject.passwd mario

The -c option indicates that the password file should be created as new; and it is only necessary for the first user. Be aware of the fact that -c overwrites the existing password file without asking anything. Personally I think this is a quite stupid behavior, but that’s the way it is.

Now we should be ready.

Let’s reload apache configuration to make the changes effective:

$ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 reload

and let’s test with the browser that our svn repository is now accessible through HTTP and HTTPs at following urls:
http://localhost/svn/myproject/
https://localhost/svn/myproject/

We can also use curl to verify it is working:

$ curl http://username:password@localhost/svn/myproject/
<html><head><title>myproject – Revision 0: /</title></head>
<body>
<h2>myproject – Revision 0: /</h2>
<ul>
</ul>
<hr noshade><em>Powered by <a href=”http://subversion.tigris.org/”>Subversion</a&gt; version 1.5.4 (r33841).</em>
</body></html>

$ curl -k https://username:password@localhost/svn/myproject/
<html><head><title>myproject – Revision 0: /</title></head>
<body>
<h2>myproject – Revision 0: /</h2>
<ul>
</ul>
<hr noshade><em>Powered by <a href=”http://subversion.tigris.org/”>Subversion</a&gt; version 1.5.4 (r33841).</em>
</body></html>

Now we can also download our project using svn

$ svn co https://localhost/svn/myproject myproject –username luigi

“luigi” is obviously my username, substitute it with yours.
The first time it will prompt for accepting the SSL certificate, answer to accept it permanently (p). Then it will optionally ask you for the password, type it.
We can also test that modifying the remote repository is working with:

$ svn mkdir -m “created the trunk for the project” https://localhost/svn/myproject/trunk –username luigi

It will answer: Committed revision 1. If so, we’ve done.

5. Installing Trac

To install trac files and required dependencies, type the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install trac
$ sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-python

Let’s create the directories for trac web folder:

$ sudo mkdir /var/local/trac
$ sudo chown www-data:www-data /var/local/trac

edit Apache configuration file for one of your enabled sites (in this example I modify the default http one, but you can choose to put trac on HTTPS modifying default-ssl)

$ sudo gedit /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default

and add the following lines at the end of the file, before the </VirtualHost> tag:

<Location /projects>
SetHandler mod_python
PythonInterpreter main_interpreter
PythonHandler trac.web.modpython_frontend
PythonOption TracEnvParentDir /var/local/trac
PythonOption TracUriRoot /projects
PythonOption PYTHON_EGG_CACHE /tmp
</Location>

# use the following for one authorization for all projects
# (names containing “-” are not detected):
<LocationMatch “/projects/[[:alnum:]]+/login”>
AuthType Basic
AuthName “trac”
AuthUserFile /etc/trac/trac.passwd
Require valid-user
</LocationMatch>

Create a password file for trac users (if you want you can reuse or link the passwd file used for subversion repositories)

$ sudo htpasswd -c /etc/trac/trac.passwd luigi
$ sudo htpasswd  /etc/trac/trac.passwd mario
… continue this way for all your users.

Create the trac environment for your project:

$ sudo -u www-data trac-admin /var/local/trac/myproject initenv

It will ask you some questions related to your project. Here’s my answers in blue

Project Name [My Project]> My Project
Database connection string [sqlite:db/trac.db]> [Just press Enter to accept the default]
Repository type [svn]>  [Just press Enter to accept the default]
Path to repository [/path/to/repos]> /var/local/svn/myproject

Now let’s restart apache:

$ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Check that trac works properly connecting the browser to http://localhost/projects or use curl to verify that the url is responding properly as we did before. This url should display a link to “My Project”, click on it and you should see the project home page. Clicking on login the browser should ask you to provide username and password as recently defined with htpasswd command.

Last thing to do: add yourself as administrator for Trac. This will enable the Admin menu and allow to do much of the administration operations from the web, that you could also do at the command line with trac-admin tool.
Execute the following command:

$ sudo -u www-data trac-admin /var/local/trac/myproject permission add luigi TRAC_ADMIN

This will make the username ‘luigi’ administrator for the project.

You can tune additional configuration settings in Trac to enable email notification, change the project logo, etc. Everything you need to know is on Trac website. For the configuration check here: http://trac.edgewall.org/wiki/TracIni

Categories: SVN Tags: , , , ,
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